Types of fish sold
There are various varieties of fish sold within the study area (rural communities), choices of fish are based on consumer’s preferences. The data collected reveal the species of fish demanded mostly by the consumer are Bonga (Ethmalosa frimbriata) 37.5% followed by mangala (Banji Mangala) 31.25%, next is Scomber (scomber japonctatus) 13.7%, stockfish (Gardusmorhua) 8.75%, sardine (Sardinella autita) 2.5%, and mackerel (Trachurus japoniaus) 2.5%. The last 3 species are demanded at low rate because for mackerel by come in big sizes and can’t be afforded by consumer and they do not have great taste unlike other species, catfish are not much in the rural markets so consumers do usually go for them, for sardine, they are sold as trys in large quantity so few consumers buy them to serve as additional ingredient.
The form they are sold
The data collected shows that fish sellers in the rural communities of Ebonyi State sell their product in various forms ranging from, Dried, Iced, Smoked, Fried, and those that sell in two forms both Dried and Smoked, smoked and iced form. The result gotten from the data shows that majority of the fish sellers within the study area sell their fish in dried form (42.5%), iced formed (20.25%), smoked fish (17.5%), those that sell in two forms (12.0%), and tried form 1.25%.
Source of fish Sold
The results generated from the data of the rural market survey presented in Table 3 shows that there are different sources of fish found in the rural markets of Ebonyi State which including wholesalers 47.5%, cold room 32.5%, Retailers 12.5%, Both wholesalers and other sources 5%, and fishermen 2.5%. From these results it revealed that majority of the fish sellers in the rural communities of Ebonyi State source for their products from wholesalers.
Source of fund
The result generated from the data presented in Table 3 shows that the major source of fund for fish sellers within the study area are from personal savings 55%, Relatives and Friends 30%, Cooperatives, 7.5% and buying product or credit from trusted producer to pay back after selling the produce 7.5%.
No of villages visited and their names
Name of market
Edugu Unagboke Village
No of responds per market
Name of market
The gross margin for Bonga (Ethmalosa fimbriata) small size
The result of the analysis of gross margin for iced Bonga (Ethmalosa fimbriata) small sizes is presented below.
Cost of fish
Total variable cost (TVC)
Revenue from selling
Small sizes of Bonga
Total Revenue (TR)
Source: Field survey, Dec, 2014.
Total fixed cost (TFC)
The results from table 4, shows that the variable cost were computers as follows, cost of fish ( 585 600), transportation (N 7, 200), Rent (N2,880), Miscellaneous (N19.200) and this gives a total variable cost (TVC) of (614,880). The result shows also that gross revenue were computed as revenue from selling fish, which gives a total Revenue (TR) of (720,000) and the results from fixed cost were: knife (N500), Table N1,200 and this gives a total fixed cost (TFC) of (N) 700 computed as follow: total revenue (TR) N 614, 880 which gives 105, 120. But profit ( ) was computed thus; gross margin (GM) 105, 120 minus total fixed cost (TFC) 1700 which gives 103, 420.
Therefore, the result gotten from table 4 shows that, the net profit (π) for selling of iced Bonga, (Ethmalosa fimbriata) gives N103, 420.